Appendix C: Common Flora
- Introductory Remarks
- Evergreen Trees
- Deciduous Trees
- Bushes, Shrubs and Vines
- Grasses and Ground Cover
- Herbaceous and Aquatics
They [plants] perform as quiet actors in their own slow theater, as the garden was called by an old and wise garden designer. – Wybe Kuitert
They [plants] perform as quiet actors in their own slow theater, as the garden was called by an old and wise garden designer. – Wybe Kuitert
For at least a millennium and a half, Japanese gardeners have selected plants from their local flora for use in their gardens, and they continue to do so.
E. Charles Nelson
Japanese botanists have catalogued over 5600 indigenous species in the Japanese archipelago, covering every type of plant from the tiniest mosses and alpine herbs to the tallest evergreens. Of these, almost one third are unique to Japan. Garden plantings generally favor evergreens because of their textures and contrasting tones, variegated leaves and petals. Few exotics are imported from other countries, and these mainly from the Chinese mainland or Europe. However, as E. Charles Nelson notes, Japan does not have a history of botanical and horticultural exploration as many European nations do, and there were no equivalents to Engelbert Kaempfer, Carl Maximowicz, James Veitch or Charles Sargent. The traffic in plants, then, “was almost solely in the one direction, from Japan to the West.”
The following sections provide selective lists of common flora found in Japanese gardens. This is not a botanical compendium, but I have included kata and/or kanji, scientific (Latin), and English names, together with pertinent notes of a cultural nature. Entries are arranged alphabetically under the Romanized Japanese name. The following species are covered in detail in Quintessential Flora, so they do not appear here: cherries, plums (apricots), pines, maples, bamboos, mosses, lotus, and azaleas.
Japanese plant names are usually created from compound words such as shira-kashi (白樫), where shira 白 means “white” and kashi 樫, “oak”. Japanese gardeners prefer to use common Japanese terms for plants rather than their botanical or Latin names, and these are usually descriptive in nature (e.g. goyōmatsu 五葉松 “five-needled pine” or kurochiku 黒竹 “black bamboo”). It is common to find plant names written in katakana rather than with their original kanji characters (e.g. シラカシ for shira-kashi), and newer imports carry katakana names that phonetically echo their Western or botanical names (e.g. yukari ユカリ for the Eucalyptus species; oribu オリブ for Olea europa). While this practice cannot be taken as an absolute rule, it does provide clues as to which species might have entered Japan more recently.
Jake Hobson draws attention to the colloquial or slang names given plants by professional gardeners and nursery specialists in Japan: “This sort of colloquialism [calling ubamegashi simply bame] is typical of Japanese gardeners and growers; they never use botanical names, and rarely even seem to stick to the full common Japanese name – and why should they? Their form of gardening is not about collecting and identifying plants, but rather about exploring the endless possibilities of working within a familiar formula.” For a selective bibliography of books concerning plants found in Japanese gardens, see “Bibliographical Notes” in Quintessential Flora. The suffix no-ki (の木) means “type of tree”, but it is often omitted unless absolutely necessary.
daimochi: See mochi below.
daisugi: See kitayama-sugi below.
ginmokusei (ギンモクセイ, 銀木犀 Osmanthus fragrans): The prefix gin (銀) means “silver”, and describes the flowers, which are white. See also kinmokusei below.
haibyakushin (ハイビャクシン Juniperus procumbens)…
hiiragi (ヒイラギ Osmanthus heterophyllus)
himaraya-sugi (ヒマラヤ杉 Cedrus deodora) Himalayan cedar: Introduced in 1879, the Himalayan cedar is one of the few exotics, or achi-no-ki (あちの木 “over there’s tree”), to find widespread acceptance in Japanese gardens. It is also often found in private gardens, municipal grounds, schools and government facilities, and Jake Hobson speculates: “(Indeed, I suspect that it is in part due to C. deodora’s aesthetic contrast to Japanese native trees that it has been embraced by Japanese gardeners.)” Pruned in the tama-zukuri (玉造り “ball-styling”) or eda-sukashi-shitate (枝透かし仕立て “branch seeing-through styling”) styles.
hinoki (桧, 棯, 檜 Chamaecyparis obtusa) Japanese cypress, Hinoki false cypress, Hinoki cypress, white cedar: The tall or normal variety of this Japanese native cypress is rarely seen in gardens, although its dwarf and colored cultivars are popular. It has been used in Japanese gardens since at least the Heian period (794-1185). Curiously, the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) warns against placing stones “where rainwater will drip off a roof onto them” because anyone splashed by such water will develop sores. However, Jirō Takei and Marc Keane point out in a footnote that the acid formed from the bark of the Hinoki cypress (hiwada-buki 桧皮葺き “hinoki-bark gable”) may stain the stones that lie in the drip-line red, but it could hardly cause sores on human skin. The Sakuteiki also recommends planting cypress trees in the following circumstance: “The hill to the north is the Black Tortoise [genbu 玄武]. If there is no hill there, then plant three cypress trees.” In a footnote, Takei and Keane note that some texts interpret the tree as sandalwood (byakushin びゃくしん); in either case, the tree is a conifer. Those who follow this rule, the author concludes, “will create places encompassed by the Four Guardian Gods [shijin 四神] and be blessed by ascending careers, personal wealth, good health, and long lives.” The Senzui-nara-bi-ni-ya-gyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) suggests that hinoki belongs in the deep mountains (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”) habitat, and adds that wisteria is often planted in the shade of pines and hinoki cypress. Traditionally, nō stages are constructed entirely from hinoki wood (see “On Stage” in Traditional Arts).
hiyokuhiba (ヒヨクヒバ Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera’)…
ibuki (伊吹 Juniperus chinensis) Chinese juniper: Very common in private gardens, usually pruned into the tama-zukuri (玉造り “ball-styling”) style. Also common is the cultivar kaizuka (カイズカ J. chinensis ‘kaizuka’).
ichii (イチイ Taxus cuspidata) Japanese yew: the ichi in the name is possibly a reference to the number “one” – ichi (一) in Japanese – because of its primary importance in imperial ceremonies. A frequently encountered cultivar is kyaraboku (キャラボク T. cuspidata ‘nana’).
inumaki (犬槇 Podocarpus macrophyllus) Japanese yew, buddhist pine, podocarpus, yew: The yew has been a staple conifer of the Japanese garden since at least the Heian period (794-1185), and forms an important part of the flora in many Buddhist temple gardens, often pruned into formal shapes.
inutsuge (イヌツゲ Ilex crenata) holly
kaizuka: See ibuki above.
kashi (樫 Quercus spp.): See akagashi above; shirakashi and ubamegashi below.
kinmokusei (キンモクセイ, 金木犀 Osmanthus fragrans ‘aurantiacus’) sweet osmanthus, sweet olive: Kin (金) means “gold”, and refers to the fragrant orange flowers that bloom in October. Osmanthus is often found in traditional Japanese gardens, frequently pruned into tall, rounded bushes or trees. In the past they were planted next to latrines to mask their odor.
kitayama-sugi (北山杉 Cryptomeria japonica ‘radicans’): Grown especially in Kitayama (北山), or the North Mountains region of Kyoto. Its most distinctive form, known as daisugi (台杉 “base sugi”), is achieved by cutting slightly above the root when the tree is still young (dai 台 means “base”), which concentrates growth into straight, tall and narrow spurs. These can be harvested multiple times, and are often used for tokonoma-bashira (床の間柱), the poles in the tokonoma alcove. Daisugi is easily trained into aesthetically-pleasing forms, so it is popular in temples: “One solitary tree often stands alone beside the temple building, expressing an essence of the mountains, a whole hillside in one tree.” See also mochi below.
koyomaki (コヨマキ Sciadopitys verticillata): Mount Koya is in Wakayama Prefecture. Very popular in private gardens.
kuroganemochi (鉄黐 Ilex rotunda) holly
kyaraboku: See ichii above.
maki (槇 Podocarpus spp.): See inumaki above, rakanmaki below.
masakaki: See sakaki below.
matebashii (マテバシイ Lithocarpus edulis)…
mochi (モチ, 黐 Ilex integra; alt. mochinoki 黐の木) bird-lime holly: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185), and often found at Shinto shrines. Sometimes grown in the daimochi (ダイモチ, 台黐 “base or platform holly”) style in which the base or trunk is severely cut down to a stump to which hardy berry-bearing cuttings are grafted. See also kitayama-sugi above.
mochinoki: See mochi above.
momi (モミ, 樅 Abies firma) Japanese fir, Momi fir: Exploited since Heian times (794-1185).
nikkō (日光 Abies homolepis) Nikko fir: Named for the famous temple and shrine complex at Nikko in Tochigi Prefecture, which is surrounded by a forest of vast specimens.
rakanmaki (羅漢槇 Podocarpus macrophyllus ‘maki’) Chinese black pine, yew pine: A smaller shrub-sized variety of inumaki (see above) mentioned in the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) as a tree suitable for a deep mountain habitat (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”). It is often grown across gateways in the mon-kaburi (門被り “gate-covering”) style.
sakaki (サカキ, 榊 Cleyera japonica; masakaki, Cleyera ochnacea マサカキ) sakaki: Used since ancient times in Shinto rituals, the sakaki is a broadleaf evergreen of the camellia family. A branch of sakaki is waved through the air by a priest as a symbol of purification, so sakaki are often planted around shintai (神体 “divine bodies”), or sacred areas, and shrines. Indiscriminate use in private gardens is usually discouraged. The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) warns specifically that planting it “in the direction one usually faces should be avoided.” The tenth chapter of Genji-monogatari (源氏物語 The Tale of Genji), titled “Sakaki” (賢木 “The Sacred Tree”), covers Genji’s visit to a shrine during which he carries a branch of sakaki.
sawara (椹 Chamaecyparis pisifera) Sawara false cypress, Sawara cypress
shi: See tsubaraji below.
shirakashi (シラカシ, 白樫 Quercus myrsinifolia) Japanese white oak: Often used for shade in parks and large gardens, or for tall hedge or screening. It is sometimes thinned using the chirashi (散らし “sprinkling”) method, which removes branches and leaves while retaining the overall appearance of tree.
sotetsu (蘇鉄 Cycas revoluta) cycad, king sago palm, sago palm: Often found at temples or large gardens, mostly in southern Japan.
The garden at Senshū-kaku (Kyū-Tokushima-jō-omote-goten-teien), Tokushima, Shikoku, makes significant use of cycads surrounding its dry pond.
Cycads also feature at Ritsurin-kōen, Takamatsu, Shikoku.
sugi (杉 Cryptomeria japonica) Japanese cedar, cryptomeria: Japanese cedar is associated with the deep mountains (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”). The name sugi may have come originally from masugu (?), meaning straight, a reference to its trunk. Although it is harvested in Japan for timber, many ancient groves have been preserved as sacred areas. Because of the rapidity and uniformity of their growth, sugi are often used as windbreaks, hedges and avenues. The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) recommends planting Japanese cedar to the southwest in large landscape gardens that feature islands. The bark is cut into swaths of two widths and sold as material for the construction of fences known as sugikawa-gaki (杉皮垣). The ancient temple complex on Mount Haguro in the Tohoku range of northwest Honshu, the headquarters of the Shugendo sect of Buddhism, lies buried in a copse of towering Japanese cedars, many of which are upwards of 150 feet and hundreds of years old. Ran Levy-Yamamori and Gerard Taaffe point to an interesting adaptation among the cedars growing along the coast of the Sea of Japan. This northern coastline suffers extreme winter conditions with heavy annual snowfall, so the cedars grow branches that sweep downwards, allowing them to shed snow more effectively. Their souther coastal cousins have predominantly horizontal branches that do not tolerate heavy snow.
tachibana (橘 Citrus tachibana) Mandarin orange: In Heian-period (794-1185) poetry, tachibana was a kake-kotoba (掛け言葉), or pun, that could be taken to mean “wait”. Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), the ukon-no-tachibana (右近の橘) was one of the sacred trees planted in the Southern Courtyard (nantei 南庭), where the evergreen citrus symbolized the eternal things of life. Orange blossoms are said to evoke powerful memories, although Kenkō (兼好 1283-1350/52), the author of Tsurezuregusa (徒然草 Essays in Idleness) suggests that plum blossoms are more effective.
tsubarajii (ツバラジイ Castanopsis cuspidata) Also the cultivar shi (シ C. cuspidata ‘sieboldii’).
tsuga (ツガ, 栂 Tsuga sieboldii) Japanese hemlock: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185).
ubamegashi (ウバメガシ Quercus phillyreoides): Tough, salt-resistant tree with dark, furrowed bark. Often trained and carefully clipped.
yamamomo (山桃 Myrica rubra) bayberry, wax myrtle: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185).
yuzu (柚, 柚子 Citrus junos) Japanese citron: Often planted beside streams to invoke a mountain village atmosphere.
The nut tree, wide above my head,
stretching its cool black limbs to take
the sun, sends darkness down my chest.
Its dappled, high crowned roadways make
safe homes for birds; quick squirrels run
the veins of its treasure-giving hand;
but the ground below is dead.
Strange providence! Shall I call the tree
tyrannical, since where it stands
nothing survives but itself and its high-
borne guests? Condemn it because it sends
down stifling darkness, sucks the life
from grass, and whitens the sapling leaf
for trifling, fluttering friends?
ego-no-ki (Styrax japonica) Japanese snowball tree, Japanese snowdrop treeenju (槐 Sophora japonica) Japanese pagoda tree, pagoda tree: A flowering deciduous tree that has been popular in Japanese gardens since the Heian period (794-1185), the enju is mentioned specifically in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making). “Pagoda trees,” claims the author, “should be planted in the vicinity of the gate. The custom of planting pagoda trees by the gates of the Ministers of State, and calling them Pagoda-tree Gates, is to illustrate the closeness of the Ministers to the people of the land and thus to encourage the people to support the Emperor.”enoki (榎 Celtis sinensis) Japanese hackberry, Chinese hackberry: Cultivated since Heian times (794-1185), the enoki is deemed ghostly, thus it is rarely found in Japanese gardens. Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) tells of the Izumo superstition that is captured in the phrase, enoki-ga bakeru (榎が化ける “the enoki changes or transforms itself”). It is not the tree itself, but really a “spectre called ki-no-o-bake [木のお化け] [which] disengages itself from the tree and walks about in various guises. Most often the shape assumed by the phantom is that of a beautiful woman.” If either a yanagi (willow; see “Deciduous Trees” below) or a young enoki are cut, blood is said to flow from the wound. The enoki receives honor because “the spirit of the god kojin [Sambō-Kōjin 三宝荒神], to whom all dolls are dedicated, is supposed to dwell within certain very ancient enoki trees, and before these are placed shrines whereat people make prayers.”haku-mokuren (Magnolia denudata) yulan, lily tree
hanamizuki, amerika-yamabōshi (ハナミズキ Cornus florida) flowering dogwood, eastern flowering dogwood, white dogwood
hannoki (榛の木 Alnus japonica; A. firma) Japanese alder: Exploited since Heian times (794-1185).
ichō (銀杏 Ginkgo biloba ‘Fastigiata’) ginkgo, maidenhair tree: The Japanese name is a pun on ya-chio, Chinese for “duck foot”, after the shape of the leaf. Jake Hobson adds that the botanical name may be a misreading of Kaempfer’s poor hand-writing: “An early Japanese name was ginkyo (silver apricot, after the fruit) but this y was misread as a g in his notes.” The ginkgo tree bears a nut (ginnan 銀杏), a culinary delicacy prized for its milky flavor, which is used in simmered dishes. It is also prized for its golden yellow foliage in autumn. Very popular in parks, shrines, temples and as street trees.
A fantastic stand of ginkgo trees in full autumnal color at Kyu-Iwasaki-teien, Tokyo.
kajinoki (梶の木 Broussonetia papyifera) mulberry tree: Traditionally used in the manufacture of paper, hence Latin name, the mulberry tree has graced gardens since the Heian period (794-1185).
kaki (柿 Diospyros kaki) Japanese persimmon, Chinese persimmon: Included in gardens since the Heian period (794-1185), its edible fruit is a symbol of winter.
kashi (樫 Quercus spp.) oak: The oak has been an integral part of the Japanese garden since at least the Heian period (794-1185). Kashiwagi (槲, 柏 Quercus dentata) is specifically mentioned in the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) as a tree suitable for a deep mountain habitat (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”). Shirakashi（白樫 Quercus mysinaefolio), or Japanese white oak, is a popular cultivar.
katsura (桂 Cercidiphyllum japonicum) katsura tree, Judas tree: The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) has this to say about the katsura, which has graced Japanese gardens since the Heian period (794-1185): “The pond to the south [of an estate] is the Scarlet Bird [suzaku 失雀]. If there is no pond, then plant nine katsura trees there.” Those who follow this rule, the author concludes, “will create places encompassed by the Four Guardian Gods [shijin 四神] and be blessed by ascending careers, personal wealth, good health, and long lives.” There was also an ancient folk tradition that a katsura bush grew on the moon, and this is sometimes referred to in ancient poetry.
keyaki (Zelkova serrata) Japanese zelkova, sawleaf zelkova
kiri (桐 Paulownia tomentosa, P. imperialis) royal paulownia, empress tree, princess tree, foxglove tree: In Genji-monogatari (源氏物語 The Tale of Genji), the sobriquet Kiri-tsubo (桐壺 Paulownia Court), is used to refer to the lady who lived overlooking this small courtyard garden featuring a paulownia (see tsuboniwa 壺庭 in The Courtyard Garden). However, the paulownia is fast-growing with large heart-shaped leaves, and is usually associated with a deep mountain habitat (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”). Traditionally, a paulownia tree is planted at the birth of a girl, and cut when she married to make her tansu (箪笥), or wardrobe, a part of her dowry. The timber is light, strong, fire-resistant, and prevents clothes from being eaten by moths. The wood is also used for making geta (下駄), traditional wooden sandals, and musical instruments.
kisasage (楸 Catalpa ovata) catalpa: Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), this flowering tree has graced the Japanese garden since the Heian period (794-1185). Indeed, “the words catalpa and bosom [kai 懐], both of which can be pronounced kai, associated catalpa trees with gates of ministers of state who were supposed to ‘take the people of the land to their bosom’.” The Sakuteiki recommends planting catalpas in the following circumstance: “The Great Path to the West is the White Tiger [byakko 白虎],” writes the author of the text. “If there is no Great Path, then plant seven catalpas in its place.” Those who follow this rule, the author concludes, “will create places encompassed by the Four Guardian Gods [shijin 四神] and be blessed by ascending careers, personal wealth, good health, and long lives.”
kōbai (紅梅 Prunus mume) red plum: Exploited since Heian times (794-1185).
kobushi, yama-aragi, kobushi-hajikami (辛夷, コブシ Magnolia kobus) kobus magnolia. During the Yayoi period (c.300 BCE-300), kobushi were planted near villages as indicators of when to plant the new rice. At the beginning of May, villagers would watch for the blooming of the kobus magnolias, as well as assessing other seasonal phenomena such as the shape of the remaining snows on nearby mountains (zansetsu 残雪), to gauge the appropriate time for planting the young rice (Retrieved 7 Nov 2014 from http://jti.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/HigHaik.SAVE).
kobushi-hajikami: See kobushi above.
kuri (栗 Castenea crenata) chestnut: A staple of the Japanese garden since the Heian period (794-1185), the cooked nuts from this tree turn golden or yellow-orange, and are added to culinary dishes, especially kaiseki-ryōri (懐石料理, tea ceremony dishes), in order to express the season of autumn. Kuri-gohan (栗ご飯), rice cooked with chestnuts, is also a popular autumnal dish, and at New Year’s celebrations, kuri-kinton (栗きんとん), a sweet paste made from chestnuts, is sometimes served.
mayumi (檀 Euonymus sieboldianus) euonymous, winged spindle tree: As the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) states, “Winged euonymus is especially striking when the leaves turn red in autumn. It makes the hills and fields [noyama 野山] its principal home. As a rule, it is also striking when planted in among podocarpus [maki 槇] and hinoki [桧] cypress.” Its principal direction is northeast.
mokuren, shi-mokuren (木蓮 Magnolia liliiflora) lily-flowered magnolia, woody orchid, purple magnolia
momo (桃 Prunus persica) peach, flowering peach, nectarine: The deciduous peach has been a staple of the Japanese garden since Heian times (794-1185). There is an association of the peach with the beliefs surrounding the Mystic Isles of the Blessed: It was one of the three trees that were reputed to grow on the island of P’eng-lai (蓬莱山; Jp. Hōraizan). Together with the plum and the pine, the peach is one of the Chinese trees of life. In The Pillow Book (Makura-no-sōshi 枕草子), we learn of the Heien festival of the peach, which took place annually on the third day of the third month (old calendar). As with the Chinese, the Japanese associated the peach tree with immortality. However, the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) states that the peach tree “is not considered very desirable. Nevertheless, being an auspicious tree, it is acceptable to plant it in a large-scale landscape garden, in the concealment of other trees. Its direction is east.”
mukonoki (椋の木 Aphananthe aspera) Asiatic nettle tree: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185).
nashi (梨 Pyrus pyrofolia) pear: The flowering pear tree has graced the Japanese garden since the Heian times (794-1185), and the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) states that it is “not of the deep mountains, but rather makes hills and fields and villages its principal home.” The author adds that varieties such as the Chinese pear are particularly pleasing.
nioinoki (匂の木, 臭の木 Cinnamomum spp.) cinnamon tree, camphor tree: The cinnamon tree (C. sieboldii, nikkei 肉桂) and the camphor tree (C. camphora, kusonoki 楠) are two aromatic trees that evoke the deep mountains (shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”).
sarusuberi (サルスベリ Lagerstroemia indica) crepe myrtle: The Japanese name, translating roughly as “monkey slips”, refers to the smooth, slippery bark. These trees are mostly pollarded.
sendan (旃檀 Melia azedarach) Japanese bead tree, Chinaberry, rosary tree: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185). The seeds have holes through their middles, hence the English names.
shakuyaku (芍薬 Paeonia albiflora) white peony: The white-flowered peony often signifies delicacy of beauty, and the poem below compares the perfect woman to favorite flowers and trees:
himeyuri no hana.
Standing, she is a shakuyaku;
Seated, she is botan;
And the charm of her figure
In walking is the charm
shidare-yanagi: See yanagi below.
shi-mokuren: See mokuren above.
yama-araragi: See kobushi above.
yamabōshi (ヤマボウシ, 山法師 Cornus kousa) kousa dogwood, kousa, Japanese dogwood: Flowers white with four petals June to July Used mainly as a landscape tree in Japanese gardens, often as a multi-stemmed tree. The timber is often used to craft implements. The Japanese translates literally as “mountain monk”.
yanagi (柳 Salix spp.) willow, weeping willow: Salix, especially Salix babylonica (shidare-yanagi 枝垂れ柳 “branch-heavy willow”; shidare is usually translated as “weeping”) are said to be symbolic of a maiden’s grace, and the phrase yanagi-goshi (柳腰) means “a willow waist”. However, the yanagi is rarely found in gardens because it is deemed ghostly. Like the enoki (榎), it has the power to haunt, and if either a yanagi or a young enoki is cut, blood is said to flow from the wound. The older the tree is, the more dangerous it is believed to be. The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) recommends the planting of nine willows in lieu of a winding stream (yarimizu 遣水, 遣り水), should the latter be impossible to construct. “The flow of water to the east of the house,” the author warns, “is the Blue Dragon [seiryū 青龍]. If there is no water there, then plant nine willow trees instead.” The rationale behind this is that willow in Chinese is pronounced ryū, a homonym of ryū (龍), meaning dragon. Those who follow this rule, the author concludes, “will create places encompassed by the Four Guardian Gods [shijin 四神] and be blessed by ascending careers, personal wealth, good health, and long lives”. Furthermore, the Sakuteiki mentions that the willow should only be planted beside the gate of an important aristocrat. “Although this need not be maintained as a strict rule,” concedes the author, “surely planting a willow by the gate of one who is unworthy would be shameful.” The terms for Willow Gate and Dragon Gate are homonyms, both are pronounced ryūmon. “In ancient China,” note Jirō Takei and Marc Keane, “Dragon Gate was a term that referred to the strict tests required to become a government official. Passing the test was tantamount to becoming socially elite.” This may account for the association between willows and dragon gates. In Heian poetry, the willow’s drooping branches swaying in a cool breeze was synonymous with summer.
yabu no yuki
yanagi bakari wa
Snow in the thicket –
in her own shape, only
The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) reiterates that the willow is not favored in the landscape garden. When it is used, it should be planted on the northwest side of an island; if there is no island, then it should not be planted at all. “There are also cases of its being planted as a river willow at the point where a bridge crosses the river in a marsh-pond landscape – a scenic effect sometimes found in large-scale landscape gardens.”
zakuro (石榴, 柘榴 Punica granatum) pomegranate: The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) states that the pomegranate is associated with a village habitat. “In the landscape garden,” the text continues, “it should be planted at a place where you intend to create the impression of hills bordering a village. However, since pomegranate has an exotic scenic quality when it bears fruit, you should set it off by planting it in an unobtrusive spot, in harmony with its surroundings.” Of course, one should assure that the tree bears fruit before planting it, adds the author.
Bushes, Shrubs, and Vines
ajisai (アジサイ, 紫陽花 Hydrangea macrophylla) hortensia, lacecap hydrangea: A deciduous shrub cultivated for its globular clusters of white, blue or purple flowers. Meigetsu-in, Kamakura, is famous for its hydrangeas, and bears the nickname Ajisai-dera (紫陽花寺).
akamegashiwa (赤芽槲 Mallotus japonicus) Japanese mallotus
aoi (葵 Asarum spp.) hollyhock: There is an Aoi-matsuri (葵祭 “Hollyhock Festival”) held annually each 15 May at Kamo Shrine (Kamigamo and Shimogamo Shinto shrines in Kyoto). People dress in Heien-period (794-1185) court costume and pull ox-carts (gissha 牛車), the conveyance of the nobility, through the streets to the shrine. The festival dates back to the sixth century, and commemorates the successful supplication to the gods to end the terrible destruction of the rice harvest by heavy rains. The emperor had sent a messenger to the shrine requesting that prayers be said, and this became an annual event. Hollyhock leaves are believed to avert wind, rain, lightening, and earthquakes, hence they are used as the central symbol of the festival. In Heian poetry, aoi is a kake-kotoba (掛け言葉), or pun, signifying a meeting or rendezvous. They are also said to evoke nostalgia for the past, and Kenkō (兼好 1283-1350/52) comments on their conventional use in poetry in the Tsurezuregusa (徒然草 Essays in Idleness).
aoki (青木 Aucuba japonica) Japanese aucuba, Japanese spotted laurel
asebi (馬酔木 Pieris japonica) andromeda, bog rosemary, lily-of-the-valley shrub: Often found in tsuboniwa (壷庭), or attending stone laver arrangements.
botan (馬酔木 Paeonia suffruticosa) tree peony, mudan, moutan: The following poem compares the perfect woman to Japanese flora (some versions substitute keshiyuri for himeyuri):
himeyuri no hana.
Standing, she is a shakuyaku;
Seated, she is botan;
And the charm of her figure
In walking is the charm
Translated by Lafcadio Hearn
budō (葡萄 Vitis spp.) grapevine: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185).
chanoki (茶の木 Camellia sinensis, Thea sinensis) tea
fuji (フジ, 藤 Wisteria floribunda; W. multijuga; W. sinensis) wisteria: In Genji-monogatari (源氏物語 The Tale of Genji), Fuji-tsubo (藤壷 Wisteria Court) is used to refer to the lady who lived overlooking this garden. Wisteria generally flowers in early May, hence it is taken as a sign of approaching summer. Sei Shōnagon (清少納言 c.966-1017) praises the effect of wisteria hanging in the pine trees of a garden in her novel The Pillow Book (Makura-no-sōshi 枕草子), although it was more often trained over a trellis or pergola. Wisteria is often found in the company of pine and cypress, and so common is the association with pines that the Senzui-nara-bi-ni-ya-gyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) claims, “It is unthinkable to plant wisteria without pines.” The author continues: “Nevertheless, because of the fascinating effect, it is fine to plant it in the umbrage of other trees such as hinoki cypress. It is also fascinating when in bloom, if planted so that it extends out over the water in a marsh-pond landscape.” Wisteria is often grown over a bamboo pergola called a fujidana (藤棚 “wisteria shelf”).
A magnificent specimen at Ashikaga Flower Park, Gunma Prefecture. © Y. Tokano.
Wisteria grown over a trellis, Shinjuku-gyoen, Tokyo.
hagi (萩 Lespedeza japonica, L. bicolor) bushclover: As one of the Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草), bushclover became synonymous during Heian times (794-1185) with the long rains of autumn, its scattering lavender or white leaves reminding the poets and aesthetes of the transitory nature of all living things. Kenkō (兼好 1283-1350/52) has this to say about its suggestive nature in Tsurezuregusa (徒然草 Essays in Idleness): “Then, as the nights gradually become cold and the wild geese cry, the under leaves of the hagi turn yellow, and men harvest and dry the first crop of rice.” The turning color of its under leaves is understood as a sign of coming winter. Bushclover was often found beside the central stairs (kizahashi 階) of the shinden (寝殿) residences, or bordering their nantei (南庭 southern gardens). The Hagi-tsuboniwa (萩 壷庭 “Bushclover Garden”), can still be seen at the imperial palace in Kyoto. The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) adds that bushclover “is planted where it will come into view just as one passes through the middle gate.”
kanamemochi (要黐 Photinia glabra) Chinese hawthorn tree, Japanese photinia: In the tea ceremony, the furo (風爐; hearth for heating water) “should be used as soon as a red bud is seen on the Kaname…, and the change made to the hearth when the Yuzu [柚, 柚子] or citron begins to yellow.”
mansaku (マンサク Hamamelis japonica) Japanese witch hazel: It is prized for its fragrant yellow flower, which blooms on bare branches during the winter months. These branches are often used in tokonoma.
mokkoku (木斛 Ternstroemia japonica, T. gymnanthera) Arabian jasmine
nanten (南天 Nandina domestica) sacred bamboo, heavenly bamboo: The scientific name is a corruption of the Japanese nanten. It is found in gardens all over Japan, although the English names are derived from the tradition of planting in temple grounds. Actually related to the barberry, it is not a bamboo at all. Due to its red fruit, it is associated with red rocks and a southerly direction, hence with fire. Superstition has it that if you have a bad dream, you should whisper it to the nanten plant and it won’t come true. The Japan Diaries of Richard Gordon Smith, who resided in Japan during the last decade of the nineteenth- and the first decade of the twentieth-century, records that nanten were planted in containers at New Year, and were thus symbolic reminders that the old year has ended and the new year was about to begin.
natsume (棗 Ziziphus jujuba) jujube: This shrub has graced Japanese gardens since Heian times (794-1185). The Kokon-chomonjū (古今著聞集), an anthology of tales dating from the Kamakura period (1185-1333), records that Fujiwara no Tadahira (藤原忠平 880-949) was exceedingly fond of natsume: “Finding a splendid specimen in the garden of a high-ranking aristocrat, he had the tree pollarded [oroshi-eda 降ろし枝] and, under his personal supervision, replanted it to the western side of the Northern Annex at Kazanin.”
sasanka (Camellia sasanqua) camellia: The difference between this species and its cousin the tsubaki (see below) lies in the way its flowers fall. The sazanka flowers drop petal by petal, while those of the tsubaki drop as complete flowers.
tsubaki (ツバキ, 椿 Camellia japonica) camellia, Japanese camellia: The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) gives this advice on the camellia: “While there are no fixed places for using camellia in the landscape garden, you will do well to plant it in association with pines so as to create a scenic effect. Whatever that may be, these two must be planted in perfect harmony.” The five-petalled flowers generally range from bright red through pink to white, although native red camellias are more often found in Zen temples rather than in private gardens because their flowers fall mid-bloom. For this reason, they were considered unlucky as they reminded people of severed heads. “However, Zen priests used this characteristic to demonstrate that man can be in the first flush of life, yet death can still find him out.” David Slawson mentions the use of camellias for creating the perception of depth in gardens: “Camellia’s glossy, very deep evergreen foliage also makes it the perfect choice for producing the effect of mountains receding into the distance, particularly when lighter tones of green are used in front.” He cites the use of the camellia as a backdrop to the dry waterfall at Daisen-in has an example of this technique. See sasanka above.
utsuki (空木 Deutzia crenata) deutzia, Japanese snowflower: Also known as unohana (卯の花), which in Heian (794-1185) poetry, is a kake-kotoba (掛け言葉), or pun, in which the syllable u is associated with sorrow.
yamabuki (山吹 Kerria japonica) kerria, Japanese rose: A particular favorite of Heian-period (794-1185) courtiers, yamabuki often graced their nantei (南庭), or southern courts. It is also a popular shore-side planting, and the Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) says that it is “best planted chiefly in the marsh-pond landscape. When used in an ordinary landscape garden, it should be planted beside a fence or some such spot.”
yatsude (八手 Fatsia japonica, Aralia japonica, A. sieboldii) aralia, Japanese aralia: Yatsude means “eight hands”, a moniker referring to the multiple-lobed palmate leaves. It is a favorite in tsuboniwa and tea gardens.
yuzuriha (譲葉 Daphniphyllum macropodum) daphniphyllum: This type of laurel has large lanciform leaves of glossy bronze, and is associated with a deep mountain habitat (see shinzan 深山 “deep mountains”). Yuzuru (譲る) means “to resign in favor of another” or “to transfer or hand over to another”, and ha (葉) a leaf or leaves. Daphniphyllum is common in gardens throughout Japan as a tree of good omen because the leaves do not fall until their replacements are growing strongly behind them, hence they are symbolic of the hope of fathers that they will not pass away until their sons are mature and able to succeed them. On New Year’s Day, leaves of the yuzuriha are mingled with ferns and added to shimenawa (標縄; rice straw ropes) that are suspended before every house.
Grasses and Ground Cover
gibōshi (ぎぼうし Hosta spp.) plaintain lily: The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) notes that the gobōshi (ごぼうし) evoked the feeling of meadows during Heian times (794-1185).
haran (葉蘭 Aspidistra elatior) cast-iron plant.
himeyuri (姫百合 Lilium callosum) star lily: See botan under “Bushes, Shrubs and Vines” above.
kuromoji (黒文字 Calycanthus spp.) spice bush: Kuromojigaki (黒文字垣) fences are made from branches cut from this bush.
kusagi (臭木 Clerodendron trichotomum) harlequin glory-bower: Exploited since the Heian period (794-1185).
kuzu (葛 Pueraria lobata) arrowroot: One of the Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草).
manryō (万両 Ardisia crenata) coral berry, spiceberry, hen’s eyes, spearflower: Often found adding seasonal color to tsuboniwa (壷庭) and tea gardens (chaniwa 茶庭); enthusiastically cultivated since the Tokugawa period (1603-1868).
masuge (ますげ Carex spp.) mountain grass: Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) as masuke (ますけ) in relation to ashide-no-yō (蘆手の様; Reed-style gardens), it is a more fragile variety of suge (すげ) or yamasuge (やなすげ).
ominaeshi (女郎花 Patrinia scabiosaefolio) patrinia: One of the Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草).
ryū-no-hige (龍のひげ Ophiopogon japonicus) Japanese snake’s beard, Japanese hyacinth, dragon’s beard, mondo grass, dwarf lilyturf: The Latin genus name comes from Greek ophis, meaning “snake”, and pogon, “beard”. The tuberous roots are edible and have medicinal qualities. Used as ground cover in shady areas.
shiba (芝, shibakusa 芝草 Zoysia japonica) Japanese lawn grass: Used since Heian times (794-1185) as a ground cover, shiba is as close to lawn grass as the Japanese come. It is considerably courser and less green than western lawn grass, especially during the hot, dry summer months. Lawns are rare in Japanese landscape gardening, although the large estate gardens of the daimyo often feature such expanses as status symbols. The celebrated three best gardens in Japan – Kōraku-en, Kenroku-en and Kairaku-en – each feature extensive lawns.
The lawns at Shinjuku-gyoen, Tokyo.
suge (すげ Carex spp.) mountain grasses: This reed-like herbaceous grass, like masuge (ますげ) and yamasuge (やなすげ), has no equivalent name in English. Originally, suge was harvested to weave rain-capes and umbrellas. Both grasses are mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) in relation to ashide-no-yō (蘆手の様; Reed-style gardens).
susuki (薄 Miscanthus sinensis) Japanese pampas grass: As one of the Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草), this herbaceous plant has graced Japanese gardens since the Heian period (794-1185). As Alex Kerr points out, it is also used in traditional thatched roofs: “Japanese roofing thatch is made of a high-growing grass with long, blade-like leaves and delicate seed fronds… it appears in countless screens and scrolls as the ‘autumn grass’ so beloved by poets and painters. Cut and bound to a farmhouse roof, it is called kaya [茅, かや]. It is more durable than rice straw: roofs thatched with kaya can last for sixty or seventy years.”
waremokō (吾亦紅 Sanguisorba officinalis) burnet, great burnet: Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) as waremokau (われもかう).
yaburan (藪蘭 Liriope platyphylla) lilyturf: This herbaceous plant has been included ion the Japanese garden since the Heian period (794-1185). A type of orchid, it was popularized in the creation of ashide-no-yō (蘆手の様; Reed-style gardens).
yamasuge (やなすげ Carex spp.) mountain grasses: These herbaceous grasses, mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) in relation to ashide-no-yō (蘆手の様; Reed-style gardens), have appeared in Japanese gardens since the Heian period (794-1185). Jirō Takei and Marc Keane theorize that they could be any of the following three varieties: suge (すげ Carex spp.), masuge (ますげ), or even yaburan (see above).
Herbaceous and Aquatic Flora
asagao (朝顔 Pharbitis spp.) morning glory: This humble flower has a strong connection to summer, and there are several well-known festivals, perhaps the best known of which is the asagao-ichi (朝顔市), or Morning Glory Fair, 6-8 July, in Kishibojin, Taito-ku, Tokyo. Sen no Rikyū (千利休 1522-1591), the famous tea master, had a garden famed for its morning glories. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉 1536/7-1598), his pupil, heard about the garden and asked to be invited for a visit while they were in bloom. But when he arrived, he found that all the morning glories had been cut down. Hideyoshi was angry when he entered the tea house and intended to redress Sen no Rikyū for disappointing his guest. But there in the tokonoma (床の間 alcove) was a single morning glory, all that had escaped the scythe. It is said that Hideyoshi saw the flower, nodded his understanding, and said nothing. The day’s lesson was simplicity.
ashi (蘆; 茟; 葦 Phragmites communis) wetland reed: Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), reeds have been planted around ponds since Heian times (794-1185). In particular, they were used to create the ashide-no-yō (蘆手の様; Reed-style gardens) and numaike-no-yō (沼池の樣 “wetland style”) styles of gardens.
ayame (菖蒲 Iris sanquinea) iris: Irises have graced the shorelines of ponds and streams since the Heian period (794-1185), and are mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) in relation to the Reed Style of garden (numaike-no-yō 沼池の樣 “wetland style”). However, save for their inclusion in stroll gardens and similar pond gardens on large estates, irises are not used much in contemporary gardens. From mid-June through mid-July, iris beds are at their best, and Meiji-jingu-naien, in Tokyo, has a particularly fine set of iris beds. See also kakitsubata below.
Irises at Meiji-jingu-naien, Tokyo.
hana-shōbu (ハナショウブ, 花菖蒲 Iris ensata) Japanese iris, Japanese water iris: Often found in specialized water gardens in mass plantings which attract vast crowds in season (around July). It has been a cultivated garden plant since the early Tokugawa period (1603-1868), in part because their fronds were thought to resemble swords, hence they were symbols of courage.
kakitsubata (杜若, kakitsu 杜 Iris laevigata) Japanese iris: Japanese irises symbolize chastity and purity. Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), they have graced the shores of ponds, swampy areas, and bridges or stepping-stones since Heian times (794-1185). In the Makura-no-sōshi (枕草子 The Pillow Book), we learn of the Iris Festival that took place annually during the Heien period on the fifth day of the fifth month (old calendar). Courtiers wore irises and the iris leaves were used to adorn house eaves in order to invite good fortune and discourage evil spirits. See ayame above.
The iris bed at Showa-kinen-kōen, Tachikawa, Tokyo, with a yatsuhashi (八つ橋), or zig-zag bridge, running through it.
katsumi (かつみ, makomo まこも Zizania spp.) wetland reed: Reeds have been planted in swamps and beside ponds since Heian times (794-1185); they are mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) in relation to the Reed-style Garden (numaike-no-yō 沼池の樣 “wetland style”).
kiku (菊 Chrysanthemum spp.) chrysanthemum: Often coupled with the butterfly in Japanese art, chrysanthemums usually bloom within the first three weeks of November, hence they anticipate winter. The flowers themselves are known as kikka (菊花). Although originally from China, these herbaceous plants have been extremely popular since the Heian period (794-1185), when they were cultivated for display in the southern courtyards (nantei 南庭) of aristocratic gardens. Shiragiku (白菊, C. moriflorum; white chrysanthemums), mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), have long been favorites of the Japanese garden; they are often paired with asters (shion 紫苑 Aster tartaricus). The chrysanthemum is a national symbol and forms the mon (紋), or crest, of the imperial family. The Genji-monogatari (源氏物語 The Tale of Genji) suggests that chrysanthemums are best viewed when tinged with light snow. Dolls created from chrysanthemums on themes supplied by kabuki used to be a common sight in shopping malls during the fall. The Pillow-Book (Makura-no-sōshi 枕草子) records the Chrysanthemum Festival, a Heien celebration that took place annually on the ninth day of the ninth month (old calendar). Chrysanthemums were also tied together around wooden pillars of buildings to scare away winter’s coming evil spirits. The chrysanthemum is considered sacred as it symbolizes purity, and a Buddhist story tells of a young man who carefully transcribed one of the sutras onto the petals of a chrysanthemum: The dew that fell from this flower was transfused with magical powers. Osawa-no-ike, the remains of a retired emperor’s palace, contains a famous island called Kikushima (菊島 “Chrysanthemum Island”), about which the Heian anthology Kokinshū (古今集) contains the following poem:
hito moto ga
omoishi kiku wo
ike no soko
dare ga uhekan
I had thought there was
but a single chrysanthemum here.
Who could have planted
the other one, there in the
depths of Osawa pond?
Annual display of chrysanthemums, Shinjuku-gyoen, Tokyo.
kikyō (桔梗 Platycodon grandiflorum) Chinese bellflower, balloon flower: The rich blue bellflower is often found planted near moss to offset the brilliant emerald color, and it has been immensely popular in Japan as a late summer bloom evoking the atmosphere of a meadow since the Heian period (794-1185). It is mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making), and although it was not so popular during subsequent centuries, it enjoyed a comeback during the Tokugawa period (1603-1868). It is one of the Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草).
kuchinashi (梔 Gardenia spp.) gardenia, cape jasmine
nadeshiko (撫子 Dianthus superbus) fringed pink, wild carnation: The delicate pink wild carnation is often taken as a symbol of the ideal Japanese woman: decorative and fragile. In Heian (794-1185) poetry, it can also refer to young girls, and the name translates directly as “pampered (caressed) child”. Tokonatsu (とこなつ), another name for it, is a kake-kotoba (掛け言葉), or pun, for toko (床; bed), and neru (寝る; to sleep). The nadeshiko is one of the traditional Seven Grasses of Autumn (aki-no-nanakusa 秋の七草).
rindō (竜胆 Gentiana scabra) autumn bellflower, gentian
sanshō (山椒 Zanthoxylum piperitum) Japanese pepper: Mentioned in the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making).
shion (紫苑 Aster tartaricus) aster, Michaelmas daisy: The Senzui-narabi-ni-yagyō-no-zu (山水並びに野行の図 Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) warns that “Asters, white chrysanthemums [shiragiku 白菊], and the like must not be planted within the landscape garden proper, even if the master expresses such a desire, since they customarily evoke feelings of melancholy.” The author continues: “White chrysanthemums and asters have a magical affinity like that of the intimate converse between a man and a woman… prepare a special place that suits them and plant them there to good advantage. Or, plant them on opposite sides of a formal wooden fence, so that they appear to be peeking at one another through the fence.”
Plant classification was an entire universe of words… Ballad, J. G. (1984; 2005). Empire of the sun: A novel. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks; p. .
They [plants] perform as quiet actors in their own slow theater… Kuitert, W. (2002). Themes in the history of Japanese garden art. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press; p. [ix].
For at least a millennium and a half, Japanese gardeners have selected plants… E. Charles Nelson (2004). Foreword. In Levy-Yamamori, R. & G. Taaffe. Garden plants of Japan. Portland & Cambridge: Timber Press; p. 7.
The traffic in plants, then, “was almost solely in the one direction, from Japan to the West… E. Charles Nelson (2004); p. 8.
This sort of colloquialism [calling ubamegashi simply bame] is typical… Hobson, J. (2007). Niwaki: Pruning, training and shaping trees the Japanese way. Portland & London: Timber Press; p. 102.
Recently, in contemporary garden making… Hobson, J. (2007); p. 13. Hobson uses the term shoyōjurin (照葉樹林) to designate the forests of the southern Japanese archipelago, but the more common term for the needle-leafed forests is shinyōjurin (針葉樹林).
…“spectre called ki-no-o-bake [木のお化け] disengages itself…” Hearn, Lafcadio (1993). In a Japanese garden. In Glimpses of unfamiliar Japan. Rutland & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co.; pp. 1993; 359; 360-61.
“(Indeed, I suspect that it is in part due to C. deodora’s aesthetic contrast… Hobson, J. (2007); p. 97.
…and the Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) warns against placing stones… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001). Sakuteiki: Visions of the Japanese garden. A modern translation of Japan’s gardening classic. Boston, Rutland & Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing; p. 190.
“The hill to the north is the Black Tortoise [genbu 玄武]…” Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 196.
Those who follow this rule, the author concludes… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 196.
The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) warns specifically… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 200.
Ran Levy-Yamamori and Gerard Taaffe point to an interesting adaptation… Levy-Yamamori, R. & G. Taaffe (2004). Garden plants of Japan. Foreword by E. C. Nelson. Portland & Cambridge: Timber Press; p. 13.
“One solitary tree often stands alone beside the temple building… Hobson, J. (2007); p. 86.
Trees are the sole features of the Japanese garden… Hobson, J. (2007); p. 20.
The nut tree, wide above my head… Gardner, J. (1989). Grendel. Illustrated by Emil Antonucci. NY: Vintage; pp. 114-5.
The trees are dead, and only the deepest religion… Gardner, J. (1989); p. 125.
“Pagoda trees,” claims the author, “should be planted… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); pp. 197; 200.
“An early Japanese name was ginkyo (silver apricot, after the fruit)… Hobson, J. (2007); p. 136.
Kashiwagi (槲, 柏 Quercus dentata) is specifically mentioned… “Kashiwagi” (柏木) is the title of the thirty-sixth chapter of Genji-monogatari, although here it is the name of a character.
“The pond to the south [of an estate] is the Scarlet Bird… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 196.
Indeed, “the words catalpa and bosom, both of which can be pronounced kai… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 31.
“The Great Path to the West is the White Tiger [byakko 白虎],” writes the author of the text… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 196.
“Winged euonymus is especially striking when the leaves turn red in autumn… Slawson, D. A. (1991). Secret teachings in the art of Japanese gardens: Design principles, aesthetic values. Tokyo & New York: Kodansha International Ltd.; p. .
…the peach tree “is not considered very desirable… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
…“not of the deep mountains, but rather makes hills and fields and villages its principal home”… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
tateba shakuyaku; / suwareba botan… Translation by L. Hearn.
The Sakuteiki (作庭記 A Record of Garden Making) recommends the planting… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); pp. 31, 196.
“Although this need not be maintained as a strict rule,” concedes the author…” Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 200.
“In ancient China,” note Jirō Takei and Marc Keane… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 121.
“There are also cases of its being planted as a river willow… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
“In the landscape garden,” the text continues, “it should be planted… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
They are also said to evoke nostalgia for the past, and Kenkō (兼好 1283-1350/52)… Keene, D. trans. (1981). Essays in Idleness: The Tsurezuregusa of Kenkō. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing; p. 121-2.
Sei Shōnagon (清少納言 c.966-1017) praises the effect of wisteria… Cited in Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 52.
…and so common is the association with pines that the Senzui-nara-bi-ni-ya-gyō-no-zu… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. ).
“Then, as the nights gradually become cold and the wild geese cry… Keene, D. trans. (1981); p. 19.
… bushclover “is planted where it will come into view just as one passes through the middle gate”… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
In the tea ceremony, the furo (風爐; hearth for heating water)… Sadler, A. L. (1963). Cha-no-yu: The Japanese tea ceremony. Rutland & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle; p. 17.
“Finding a splendid specimen in the garden of a high-ranking aristocrat… Cited in Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 49 n.9.
“While there are no fixed places for using camellia in the landscape garden… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
“However, Zen priests used this characteristic to demonstrate… Harte, S. (1999). Zen gardening. London: Pavilion Books; p. 27.
“Camellia’s glossy, very deep evergreen foliage… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. 120.
…it is “best planted chiefly in the marsh-pond landscape… Slawson, D. A. (1991); p. .
“Japanese roofing thatch is made of a high-growing grass… Kerr, A. (1996). Lost Japan. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. Lost Japan; p. 43.
Jirō Takei and Marc Keane theorize that they could be… Takei, J. & M. P. Keane (2001); p. 165 n.45.
The Genji-monogatari (源氏物語 The Tale of Genji) suggests that chrysanthemums… Cited in Keane, M. P. (1996). Japanese garden design. Photographs by H. Ōhashi. Drawings by the author. Rutland & Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle; p. 123.
hito moto ga / omoishi kiku wo… Cited Nitschke, G. (1993). Japanese gardens: Right angle and natural form. Köln: Benedikt Taschen; p. 43.
In Heian (794-1185) poetry, it can also refer to young girls… Keane, M. P. (1996); p. 165 n.3.
… “Asters, white chrysanthemums [shiragiku 白菊], and the like… Slawson, D. A. (1991); pp. , .
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